芬蘭無條件基本收入啟動:期盼著新的開始

Unconditional Basic Income

芬蘭無條件基本收入啟動:期盼著新的開始

文章howie » 2017-01-12, 00:48

Finland's basic income experiment begins: one man looks forward to a new start
芬蘭無條件基本收入啟動:期盼著新的開始

Perustulo Juha Järvinen Kurikka perhe ruokapöytä ruokailu VH.jpg
Juha和他六個小孩其中三個的合照


Juha Järvinen is one of 2,000 unemployed people selected to participate in Finland’s basic income trial and receive a tax-free monthly payment from the state of 560 euros. He says the money will help him return to a normal life and get his business off the ground.

魯蛇Juha,是參加芬蘭無條件基本收入實驗2000名裡其中一人.他將會每月收到560歐元且不會被扣任何的稅金.他說,有了這筆錢後,可幫助他恢復正常生活,且之前經營的生意開始有起色
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Juha Järvinen, from the western Finnish city of Kurikka, felt like a lucky man in late 2016, when he learned he was one of the 2,000 unemployed selected to take part in a nationwide basic income experiment.

Juha Järvinen,住在Kurikka西邊的Finnish城.2016年末當他成為全國性無條件基本收入實驗裡挑選出2000名符合失業條件的其中一員時,感覺像是中了樂透.

“When I saw the letter from Kela in the mailbox, I was like ’Yes!’”, he says.
他說:當我看到KELA寄來的信時,我爽翻了!!


Finland’s basic income trial is being run by the state-owned benefits administrator Kela. The 2,000 participants were selected from the ranks of existing labour market subsidy and unemployment benefit recipients. According to Statistics Finland's Labour Force Survey, there were 213,000 unemployed people in Finland in November 2016.
芬蘭的基本收入決定由國有福利機構Kela管理。 2,000名參加者從現有的勞動力市場補貼和失業救濟金領取者中選出。 根據芬蘭統計局的勞動力調查,2016年11月芬蘭有21.3萬失業人員。


The participants in the compulsory trial will receive a tax-free payment of 560 euros every month for the next two years. Kela says the purpose of the trial is to ascertain how receiving a state benefit with no strings attached will affect employment.
實驗的參與者將在未來兩年每月免費獲得560歐元的收入。 Kela說,實驗的目的是看看在沒有附加條件去影響就業而獲得國家福利,情況將會如何.

Järvinen says he thinks the trial will help him to find work.
Juha他想說這樣的實驗應該會幫助他找到工作.

“The basic income will allow me to jump back into normal life. Now that it has my back, I can freely give things a try,” he says.
UBI會讓我可以恢復以前正常生活.現在的確恢復了,而且我可以自由選擇我想去嚐試的東西.Juha說

More freedom to take temp work
選擇兼差更佳彈性


Järvinen received his first 560-euro payment in his bank account on January 9. The monthly amount will be 90 euros less than Järvinen was receiving in unemployment benefits before the trial.
Juha在1月9日的銀行帳戶中收到了他的第一筆560歐元的收入。每月的金額將比他在實驗前收到的失業救濟金少90歐元。

Even so, Järvinen is happy about the change, as the basic income will give him more freedom and allow him to entertain more alternatives. The ‘no-strings attached’ principle of the basic income is in contrast to Kela policy, for example, that reduces the labour market subsidy if any additional income is earned.
即使如此,Juha對這種變化感到高興,因為基本收入將給他更多的自由,並允許他娛樂更多的選擇。 基本收入的“不附帶條件”原則與Kela政策形成對比,例如,如果獲得任何額外收入,就會減少勞動力市場補貼。

“If I get offered occasional gigs, now I can take them. Before I had to say ‘no’. I want to work and I can do it. In the past, I’ve felt as if I can’t do work, because if I did, I suffered for it.”
“如果我偶爾得到演出,現在我可以帶小孩們一塊去。 但之前我不行。 因為我得工作,我要做好,且不得不去做.這像簡像是受折磨.

Opponents of the basic income experiment say it is expensive and it gives people leave to live at the expense of others. Others feel it has the potential to institutionalize temporary contracts and weaken collective labour agreements, in addition to exacerbating the marginalization of women and social outcasts.
基本收入實驗的反對者說,它代價高,而且讓有些人去過比其他人更爽的生活。 其他人認為,除了加劇婦女和社會魯蛇的邊緣化外,還有可能使臨時合同製度化,削弱集體勞動協議

Dreaming of self-employment
為自己打工的夢想



Järvinen has been unemployed for five years. Before this, he ran his own one-man company for seven years. His firm manufactured decorative window frames, and demand even extended to markets beyond Finland’s borders.
Juha已經失業了五年。 在此之前,他經營自己的個體戶七年。 他的個體戶製造裝飾窗框,業務甚至擴展到芬蘭鄰居國家市場。

Towards the end, however, he found himself working for months at a time without a salary, in practice. Finally, he burned out and the company went bankrupt.
到了最後,他發現自己在這期間好幾個月工作沒有薪水。 結果,他的個體戶解體了。(這段講的有點蛋疼XD)

“I lost my credit rating and went into foreclosure.”
“我失去了我的信用評價,然後被斷頭。

Järvinen says he believes that the basic income will give him a new chance. He is confident that he’ll have a new business up and running by the end of January or beginning of February.
Juha說他認為基本收入將給他一個新的機會。 他相信他將在1月底或2月初重新開始。

"For my part, the basic income will mean I can escape enslavement and feel that I am a functioning citizen again.”
對我來說,基本收入意味著我可以逃脫被奴才,並覺得我是一個正常運作的公民。

Bureaucratic jungle eases up
淡化官僚體制


Järvinen says the basic income will also mean that he can be more present in his children’s everyday life. The oldest of his six children is 15 and the youngest is 5. His wife works as a nurse.
Juha說,基本收入也意味著他可以更多地參與孩子的日常生活中。 他六個孩子中最老的是15歲,最小的是5歲。他的妻子擔任護士。

He is certain that his family will run up against much less bureaucracy during the basic income experiment than what they experienced when he was receiving social assistance – Finland’s last-resort form of financial aid.
他確定,他的家庭在基本收入實驗中將比他們在接受社會援助時所經歷的更少的官僚主義 - 芬蘭的最後手段形式的財政援助。

He remembers one incident in particular when he needed to warm his house. Kela agrees to pay certain bills that are necessary for basic necessities in life, like food, clothing and public transport. Any bills paid directly reduce the amount of basic social assistance, however.
他記得一件事兒,特別是當他需要溫暖他的房子。 Kela同意支付生活中基本必需品所需的一些賬單,如食品,衣服和公共交通。 但是,所支付的任何票據都直接減少了基本社會援助的數額。

“I couldn’t get money for wood to heat the house, so I had to revert to electric heating.”
偶沒有拿到足夠的錢來買木材為房子加熱,所以只好又回復到電暖器(用電不是更好?? )

If his home would have had a wood-burning stove in the sauna, he would have qualified for 50 euros in compensation. Because the money to heat his house with wood was rejected, he had to rely on electric heating, which ended up being much more expensive.
如果他的家在桑拿浴室裡有一個燃木火爐,他將有50歐元的補助。 因為用木材加熱的錢不夠,他不得不依靠電加熱,結果生活費用更貴。(原來是這樣)

然後就這樣, 沒了. 沒尾~

http://yle.fi/uutiset/osasto/news/finla ... rt/9394707
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